LIGHTWEIGHT FRAMEWORKScrum is a lightweight framework that helps people, teams and organizations generate value through adaptive solutions for complex problems. Try it as is and determine if its philosophy, theory, and structure help to achieve goals and create value. Agile is a project management philosophy that values individuals and interactions over processes and tools, working software over comprehensive documentation, customer collaboration over contract negotiation, and responding to change over following a plan. Scrum is the most widely used and popular agile framework. The term agile describes a specific set of foundational principles and values for organizing and managing complex work. The Scrum framework is purposefully incomplete, only defining the parts required to implement Scrum theory. Scrum is built upon the collective intelligence of the people using it. Rather than provide people with detailed instructions, the rules of Scrum guide their relationships and interactions. Scrum is founded on empiricism and lean thinking. Empiricism asserts that knowledge comes from experience and making decisions based on what is observed. Lean thinking reduces waste and focuses on the essentials. Scrum employs an iterative, incremental approach to optimize predictability and control risk. Scrum engages groups of people who collectively have all the skills and expertise to do the work and share or acquire such skills as needed. Scrum combines four formal events for inspection and adaptation within a containing event, the Sprint. These events work because they implement the empirical Scrum pillars of transparency, inspection, and adaptation.
ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENTScrum promotes an iterative and incremental approach to development, breaking down the project into smaller, more manageable pieces known as “Sprints.” Sprints are fixed-length events of one month or less to create consistency. A new Sprint starts immediately after the conclusion of the previous Sprint. All the work necessary to achieve the Product Goal, including the Scrum events such as the Sprint Planning, Daily Scrums, Sprint Review, and Sprint Retrospective, happen within Sprints. Each event in Scrum is a formal opportunity to inspect and adapt Scrum artifacts. These events are specifically designed to enable the transparency required. Failure to operate any events as prescribed results in lost opportunities to inspect and adapt. Events are used in Scrum to create regularity and to minimize the need for meetings not defined in Scrum. Optimally, all events are held at the same time and place to reduce complexity.
WORK OF VALUEThe Scrum artifacts previously mentioned represent work or value. They are designed to maximize the transparency of key information. Thus, everyone inspecting them has the same basis for adaptation. Each artifact contains a commitment to ensure it provides information that enhances transparency and focus against which progress can be measured:
- For the Product Backlog, it is the Product Goal.
- For the Sprint Backlog, it is the Sprint Goal.
- For the Increment, it is the Definition of Done.
EMPOWERED TEAMSThe Agile principle of self-organizing teams empowers members to make decisions collectively. However, this empowerment can lead to challenges in terms of accountability and alignment with organizational objectives.
Project managers must foster a culture of collaboration and ensure that teams remain focused on the broader project vision while enjoying the autonomy to make tactical decisions.
DYNAMIC REQUIREMENTSIn Agile, requirements are expected to evolve throughout the project, offering adaptability to changing priorities. This flexibility, while beneficial, demands constant communication and collaboration between stakeholders and the development team. Project managers must be adept at managing changing expectations and ensuring that the evolving scope aligns with project goals.
CONTINUOUS FEEDBACKScrum places a strong emphasis on regular feedback loops through ceremonies like sprint reviews and retrospectives. While these are invaluable for course correction, they also demand effective communication and transparency. Managing feedback and ensuring that it contributes positively to the project requires a delicate touch and a keen understanding of team dynamics.
TIME MANAGEMENTSprints in Scrum are time-boxed iterations and containers for all other events. The challenge lies in delivering a valuable increment within these time constraints while maintaining high quality. An Increment is a concrete stepping stone toward the Product Goal.
Each Increment is additive to all prior Increments and thoroughly verified, ensuring that all Increments work together. To provide value, the Increment must be usable.
Project managers must be adept at time management, setting realistic goals for each sprint, and adjusting timelines based on team velocity and project complexity known as Scrum events.
ROLE CLARITYThe fundamental unit of Scrum is a small team of people, a Scrum Team. The Scrum Team consists of one Scrum Master, one Product Owner, and Developers. Within a Scrum Team, there are no sub-teams or hierarchies. It is a cohesive unit of professionals focused on one objective at a time, the Product Goal. Scrum Teams are cross-functional, meaning the members have all the skills necessary to create value for each Sprint. They are also self-managing, meaning they internally decide who does what, when, and how. While this clarity is beneficial, it also requires a nuanced understanding of each role’s responsibilities. Project managers must ensure that these roles are well-defined and that individuals understand and fulfill their duties to maintain the efficiency of the Scrum framework.
SCALING CHALLENGESWhile Scrum is effective for small to medium-sized teams, scaling it for larger projects or organizations introduces its own set of complexities. Project managers need to consider how to maintain Agile principles while coordinating multiple Scrum teams, managing dependencies, and aligning overarching goals. The Nexus guide provides guideless to on how to handle larger projects. Nexus is a framework for developing and sustaining scaled product delivery initiatives. It builds upon Scrum, extending it only where necessary to minimize and manage dependencies between multiple Scrum Teams while promoting empiricism and Scrum Values. A Nexus is a group of approximately three to nine Scrum Teams that work together to deliver a single product; it is a connection between people and things. A Nexus has a single Product Owner who manages a single Product Backlog from which the Scrum Teams work. The Nexus framework defines the accountabilities, events, and artifacts that bind and weave together the work of the Scrum Teams in a Nexus. Nexus builds upon Scrum’s foundation, and its parts will be familiar to those who have used Scrum. It minimally extends the Scrum framework only where necessary to enable multiple teams to work from a single Product Backlog to build an Integrated Increment that meets a goal.
FINAL THOUGHTSThe Agile principles of Scrum bring a refreshing approach to project management, emphasizing adaptability, collaboration, and continuous improvement. However, the complexities within this framework demand skilled project managers who can navigate the challenges posed by iterative development, empowered teams, dynamic requirements, continuous feedback, time management, role clarity, and scaling challenges. Successfully harnessing the power of Scrum requires a commitment to Agile values, a keen understanding of team dynamics, and a proactive approach to addressing the complexities that inevitably arise during the project lifecycle. As organizations continue to adopt Agile methodologies, project managers who master the intricacies of Scrum will be well-equipped to lead their teams to success in an ever-evolving landscape. Sources
Scrum Guide: https://www.scrumguides.org/
Scrum Glossary: https://www.scrum.org/Resources/Scrum-Glossary
Agile Manifesto: http://agilemanifesto.org/
The Three Pillars of Empiricism: https://www.scrum.org/resources/blog/three-pillars-empiricism-scrum
Evidence-Based Management: https://www.scrum.org/resources/evidence-based-management-guide
The Nexus Guide: https://www.scrum.org/resources/nexus-guide